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If you are new to web design, this transition will be painless, because you have nothing to relearn and no bad habits to break. If you already have experience building webpages and applications, this book will guide you safely through some of these waters and introduce the new technologies and techniques in a logical and straightforward way. Valid HTML 4 code will remain valid for the foreseeable future. HTML5 was intended to make your task easier by allowing you to do more, with less work.

To see the complete list of HTML5 elements, check out www. To learn more about W3C, check out www. An inline element can exist within another element. The language and syntax is complex, powerful, and end- lessly adaptable; it takes time and dedication to learn and years to master.

HTML was never intended to be a design medium. Other than bold and italic, version 1. Designers resorted to various tricks to produce the desired results. For example, they used HTML tables to simu- late multicolumn and complex layouts for text and graphics, and they used images when they wanted to display typefaces other than Times or Helvetica. Using the expanded table mode in Dreamweaver top , you can see how this webpage relies on tables and images to produce the inal design bottom.

Using CSS lets you strip the HTML code down to its essential content and structure and then apply the formatting separately, so you can more easily tailor the webpage to spe- ciic applications. Click in the Design view window to update the display. Make a mistake, like typing greeen or geen, and the browser will ignore the color formatting altogether.

Note that the code contains two color: blue; attributes. In Design view, all the heading elements display in green. In Design view, the paragraph elements have changed to green. So even if you do nothing, the text will already be formatted in a certain way. One of the essential tasks in mastering CSS is learning and understanding these defaults.

If necessary, select Design view to preview the contents of the ile. Each element exhibits basic styling for traits such as size, font, and spacing, among others. A quick look will tell you that there is no obvious styling information in the ile, but the text still displays diferent kinds of formatting.

So where does it come from? And what are the settings? HTML elements draw characteristics from multiple sources. You can ind a default style sheet at www. To save time and give you a bit of a head start, the following table pulls together some of the most common defaults. Body text Outside of a table cell, text aligns to the left and starts at the top of the page. This default is not honored by all browsers. Fonts Text color is black. Default typeface and font is specified and supplied by the browser or by browser preferences specified by the manufacturer and then by the user.

Margins Spacing external to the element box. Many HTML elements feature some form of margin spacing. Padding Spacing between the box border and the content. According to the default style sheet, no element features default padding.

Unfortunately, even diferent versions identify the browsers that visitors in your of the same browser can produce wide target audience use. IE Other 0. In January , the W3C published statistics, shown in the image above, identifying the most popular browsers.

Although this chart shows the basic breakdown in the browser world, it obscures the fact that multiple versions of each browser are still being used. To make matters more complicated, although these statistics are valid for the Internet overall, the statistics for your own site may vary wildly.

Css box model he browser normally reads the HTML code, interprets its structure and format- ting, and then displays the webpage. It imposes an imaginary box around each element and then enables you to format almost every aspect of how that box and its contents are displayed. The box model is a programmatic construct imposed by CSS that enables you to format, or redeine, the default settings of any HTML element.

In most instances these boxes are invisible, and although CSS gives you the ability to format them, it does not require you to do so. Open boxmodel. Content vs. Here is identical HTML content, side by side. Formatting text You can apply CSS formatting in three ways: inline, embedded in an internal style sheet , or linked via an external style sheet. A CSS formatting instruction is called a rule. A rule consists of two parts—a selector and one or more declarations.

Applying a CSS rule is not a simple matter of selecting some text and applying a paragraph or character style, as in Adobe InDesign or Adobe Illustrator. CSS rules can afect single words, paragraphs of text, or combinations of text and objects. A single rule can afect an entire page. A rule can be speciied to begin and end abruptly, or to format content continuously until changed by a subsequent rule. The way the selector is written HTML element determines how the styling is applied and Multiple how the rules interact with one another.

Cascade theory he cascade theory describes how the order and placement of rules in the style sheet or on the page afects the application of styling. In other words, if two rules conlict, which one wins out? Note that the code contains two CSS rules that are identical except that they apply diferent colors: red or blue. Both rules want to format the same elements, but only one will be honored.

Obviously, the second rule won. Because the second rule is the last one declared, which makes it the closest one to the actual content. You have switched the order of the rules. Both proximity and the order in which rules appear within the markup are powerful factors in how CSS is applied.

When you try to determine which CSS rule will be honored and which formatting will be applied, browsers typically use the following order of hierarchy, with 3 being the most powerful. Browser defaults. If both are present, the one declared last supersedes the earlier entry in conlicts. Inline styles within the HTML element itself. Inheritance theory he inheritance theory describes how one rule can be afected by one or more pre- viously declared rules. Inheritance can afect rules of the same name as well as rules that format parent elements or elements that nest one inside another.

In Split view, observe the CSS code. In other words, since both rules do something diferent, both will be honored. Far from being a mistake or an unintended consequence, the ability to build rich and elaborate formatting using multiple rules is one of the most powerful and complex aspects of cascading style sheets.

Redundant code should be avoided whenever possible. It adds to the size of the code as well as to the time it takes to download and process it. By using inheritance, you can create the same efect with a single rule. All the elements remain formatted as blue Verdana. One rule is now formatting three diferent elements. You may have also noticed that the two h1 rules combined create the same styling applied by the new div rule.

Click in the Design view window to refresh the display; it should look exactly the same. Descendant theory he descendant theory describes how formatting can target a particular element based on its position relative to other elements. By constructing a selector using multiple elements, in addition to ID and class attributes, you can target the format- ting to speciic instances of text as it appears within your webpage. Click in the Design view window to refresh the display.

What happened to blue Verdana? Just move the element into the proper structure or location within the code, and it formats itself. Some refer to this as weight—giving certain rules more priority based on order, proximity, inheritance, and descendant relationships. But, at the moment, none of the rules is actually formatting the text. In Dreamweaver, commented code usually appears grayed out. But before you do this, can you determine—based on the syntax and order of the rules—what formatting will apply to the sample text?

For example, will the text appear in Times, Impact, or Verdana? Will it be blue, red, green, or orange? So, then why does the text display in the typeface Verdana?

As mentioned earlier, CSS rules may style more than one HTML element at a time, and some rules may overlap or inherit styling from one another. Can you determine which one? Can you explain why? Each of the theories described here has a role to play in how CSS styling is applied through your webpage and across your site. When the style sheet is loaded, the browser will use the following hierarchy—with number 4 being the most powerful—to determine how the styles are applied, especially when rules conlict: 1.

Cascade 2. Inheritance 3. Descendant structure 4. In such cases, Dreamweaver comes to the rescue with a fantastic feature named Code Navigator. When activated, it will display all the CSS rules that have some role in formatting an ele- ment, and it will list the order of their cascade application and speciicity.

In an actual webpage, the possibility of styling conlicts grows with each new rule added. A small window appears, displaying a list of three CSS rules that apply to this heading. When rules conlict, rules farther down in the list override rules that are higher up.

Remember, elements may inherit styling from one or more rules, and default styling may be overridden by more-speciic settings. But many factors can inluence which of the rules may win. As you saw earlier, changing the order of rules can often afect how the rules work. Activate the Code Navigator. Although the rule was moved to the top of the style sheet, the display of rules did not change, because the div.

In this instance, it would win no matter where it was placed in the code, but its speciicity can easily be changed by modifying the selector. Did you notice how the styling changed? But, since this rule is the last one declared in the code, it now takes precedence in the cascade.

Is it starting to make more sense? Until that time, just remember that the rule that appears last in the Code Navigator has the most inluence on any particular element. By default, all elements start at the top of the browser screen and appear consecu- tively one after the other from left to right, top to bottom.

Block elements generate their own line or paragraph breaks; inline elements appear at the point of insertion. CSS can break all of these default constraints and let you size, format, and position elements almost any way you want them.

CSS can control both the width and the height of an element, with varying degrees of success. All speciications can be expressed in relative terms percentages, ems, or exs or in absolute terms pixels, inches, points, centimeters, and so on.

By default, block elements occupy percent of the width of the browser window. Otherwise, CSS can deine element mea- surements in absolute or relative terms. Box 1 is unformatted to demonstrate how block elements display by default.

Relative measurements allow the elements to automati- cally adapt to changes to the width of the browser. For example, if you were to drag the divider between the Code view and Design view windows left or right, Box 2 would always display at half the width of the Design view window.

Element widths set to percentages will adapt automatically to changes in the browser window, maintaining their relative dimen- sion within the space. Box 3 is formatted to a ixed measurement of pixels. It will maintain this width no matter what happens to the size of the browser screen. It is formatted to a width of 10 ems. In other words, use a large font and the em gets big- ger; use a small font and the em gets smaller. It even changes based on whether the font is a condensed or expanded face.

Widths speciied in ems allow your page ele- ments to adapt to user requests for increases or decreases in font size. Unfortunately, the reality is not so simple.

Past browser support for the height property was not consistent or reliable. But measurements in percentages require a small workaround, or hack, to make most browsers honor them. Box 1 demonstrates the default behavior of block elements; it takes up only as much height as the content contained within it requires.

Box 2 is set to a height of pixels; it will remain at this ixed height regardless of changes to the screen size or orientation. Box 3 is set to a height of 10 ems. So far, so good. Adding the height property to the root elements of your webpage gives the browser the information it needs to calculate any element heights set in percentages. By default, it is intended to be a luid speciication that allows an element to automatically adapt to the space requirements of its content. Borders and backgrounds Each element can feature four individually formatted borders top, bottom, left, and right.

As you can see, borders can be used for more than just creating boxes. Here you see them used as graphical accents to paragraphs and even to simulate a three- dimensional button efect. If both are used, the image will appear above, or in front of, the color. If the image ills the visible space or is set to repeat, it may obscure the color entirely. Box 1 displays the default HTML transparent background. Box 2 depicts a back- ground with a solid color. Box 3 shows a background image that repeats in both directions along the x-axis and y-axis.

Box 4 also shows a background image, but its transparency and drop-shadow efect allow you to see the background color around the edges of the image. Be sure to fully test any background treatments. In some applications, CSS back- ground speciications are not fully supported or are supported inconsistently. All the elements display the default HTML formatting for margins and padding. Borders have been applied to all the elements to make the spacing efects easier to see.

Type padding: 30px;. Since padding is applied within the element boundaries, it will combine with margin settings to afect the overall spacing that appears between elements. Many designers abhor these default speciications, especially because they may vary among browsers. Using zero margins may be a bit extreme for your own tastes, but you get the picture. As you become more comfortable with CSS and webpage design, you can develop your own default speciications and implement them in this way.

CSS can break all these default constraints and let you place elements almost anywhere you want them to be. As with other object formatting, positioning can be speciied in relative terms such as left, right, center, and so on or by absolute coordinates measured in pixels, inches, centimeters, or other standard measure- ment systems. Using CSS, you can even layer one element above or below another to create amazing graphical efects.

By using positioning commands carefully, you can create a variety of page layouts, including popular multicolumn designs. Using CSS, you can control the placement of these elements. Box 1 displays on a line of its own, in the default manner. Box 2 appears on the next line, aligned to the left side of the screen as speciied. Box 3 appears on the right side of the screen, but on the same line as Box 2. In subsequent lessons, you will learn how to combine diferent loat attributes with various width, height, margin, and padding settings to create sophisticated layouts for your website designs.

Unfortunately, as powerful as CSS positioning seems to be, it is the one aspect of CSS that is most prone to misinterpretation by the various browsers in use today. Commands and formatting that work ine in one browser can be translated difer- ently or totally ignored—with tragic results—in another.

In fact, formatting that works ine on one page of your website can fail on another page containing a difer- ent mix of code elements.

By taking advantage of the cascade, inheritance, descendant, and speciicity theo- ries, you can target formatting to almost any element anywhere on a webpage. But CSS ofers a few more ways to optimize and customize the formatting even further. Class attributes may be applied to any number of elements on a page, whereas P Note: Dreamweaver will warn you when ID attributes may appear only once. Class and ID names can be a single word, an abbreviation, any combination of letters and numbers, or almost anything, but they may not start with a number or contain spaces.

To declare a CSS class selector, insert a period before the name within the style sheet, like this:. In the past, many web designers used ID attributes to point at speciic components within the page, such as the header, the footer, or articles. With the advent of HTML5 elements—header, footer, aside, article, and so on—the use of ID and class attributes for this purpose is less neces- sary than it was.

But IDs can still be used to identify speciic text elements, images, and tables to assist you in building powerful hypertext navigation within your page and site. Technologies and standards are evolving and changing constantly.

Although these standards have not been oicially adopted, browser vendors are already implementing many of their features and techniques. As you work through the upcoming lessons, you will be introduced to many of these new and exciting techniques and actually implement many of the more stable HTML5 and CSS3 features within your own sample pages.

Css3 features and efects here are over two dozen new features in CSS3. Many are ready now and have been implemented in all the modern browsers; others are still experimental and are sup- ported less fully. Some of the new CSS3 features have not been standardized, and certain browsers may not recognize the default markup generated by Dreamweaver.

In these instances, you may have to include speciic vendor commands to make them work properly. If you do nothing, HTML elements will feature no formatting or structure. CSS3 features are all experimental, and you should not use them at all. Industry best practices recommend using CSS-based formatting instead. Even if you do nothing, many HTML elements feature built-in formatting. Many CSS3 features are already supported by modern browsers and can be used today.

What is the purpose of the website? Will the website sell or support a product or service? Is your site for entertainment or games? Will you provide information or news? Will you need a shopping cart or database? Do you need to accept credit card payments or electronic transfers?

Who is the customer? Are the customers adults, children, seniors, professionals, hobbyists, men, women, everyone? Knowing who your market will be is vital to the overall design and func- tionality of your site.

A site intended for children probably needs more animation, interactivity, and bright engaging colors. Adults will want serious content and in- depth analysis. Seniors may need larger type and other accessibility enhancements. A good irst step is to check out the competition. Is there an existing website Could two sites be more performing the same service or selling the same product?

Are they successful? Look and Yahoo? Yet they both perform the same at Google and Yahoo. But, just as with a brick-and-mortar business, your online customers can come to you in a variety of ways.

For example, are they accessing your site on a desktop computer, laptop, tablet, or cell phone? Are they using high-speed Internet, wireless, or dial-up service? What browser do they most like to use, and what is the size and resolution of the display? Dial-up and cell phone users may not want to see a lot of graphics or video, while users with large lat-panel displays and high-speed connec- tions may demand as much bang and sizzle as you can send at them.

So, where do you get this information? But a lot of it is actually available on the Internet itself. In , they started to track the usage of mobile devices on the Internet.

If you are redesigning an existing site, your web hosting service itself may provide valuable statistics on historical traic patterns and even the visitors themselves. If you host your own site, third-party tools are available, like Google Analytics and Adobe Omniture, which you can incorporate into your code to do the tracking for you for free or for a small fee.

When you boil down all the statistics, this is what you will ind as of the begin- ning of Windows 80 to 90 percent dominates the Internet, with most users divided almost equally between Firefox 37 percent and Google Chrome 33 per- cent , with various versions of Internet Explorer 22 percent taking third position.

Designing a website that can look good and work efectively for both lat-panel displays and cell phones is a tall order. Each day, more people are using cell phones and other mobile devices to access the Internet. Some users may use them now to access the Internet more fre- quently than they use desktop computers. For one thing, cell phone screens are a fraction of the size of even the smallest lat-panel display. How do you cram a two- or three-column page design into a meager to pixels? Keep all these statistics in mind as you go through the process of designing your site.

A page carefully designed for a typical lat panel is basically useless on a cell phone. Your customers come from a broad demographic including all ages and education levels. Your marketing research indicates that most of your customers use desktop com- puters or laptops, connecting via high-speed Internet services, but that you can expect 10 to 20 percent of your visitors via cell phone and other mobile devices.

Creating thumbnails Many web designers start by drawing thumbnails with pencil and paper. Draw lines between the thumbnails showing how your navigation will connect them. Thumbnails list the pages that need to be built and how they are connected to each other. Most sites are divided into levels. Typically, the irst level includes all the pages in your main navigation menu, the ones a visitor can reach directly from the home page. Make a list of compo- nents you want on each page, such as headers and footers, navigation, and areas for the main content and the sidebars if any.

What other factors do you need to consider? Do you have a company logo, business identity, graphic imagery, or color scheme you want to accent? Do you have publications, brochures, or current advertising campaigns you want to emulate?

It helps to gather them all in one place so you can see everything all at once on a desk or conference table. Most designers settle on one basic page design that is a compromise between lexibility and sizzle.

Some site designs may naturally lean toward using more than one basic layout. But resist the urge to design each page separately. Using a consistent page design, or template, lends a sense of professionalism and gives conidence to your visitor. Wireframes allow you to experiment with page designs quickly and eas- ily without wasting time with code. Where you put a component can drasti- cally afect its impact and usefulness.

Are they on a inch lat panel or a 2-inch cell phone? Do you want to waste this position by slapping the company logo here? Or, make the site more useful by slipping in a navigation menu?

Do you go for design sizzle, workable utility, or something in between? Creating wireframes After you pick the winning design, wireframing is a fast way to work out the structure of each page in the site. A wireframe is like a thumbnail, but bigger, that sketches out each page and ills in more details about the components, such as actual link names and main headings. The wireframe for the inal design should identify the compo- nents and feature markup for content, color, and dimensions.

Such mockups are as good as seeing the real thing but may take only a fraction of the time to produce. Deining a Dreamweaver site From this point forward, the lessons in this book function within a Dreamweaver site. Along with the options for creating a standard Dreamweaver site, the dialog ofers the ability to create a site based on the services ofered by Adobe Business Catalyst. Business Catalyst is an online, hosted application that allows you to build and manage rich, dynamic web-based businesses.

To learn more about the capabilities of Business Catalyst, check out www. To create a standard website in Dreamweaver CS6, you need only name it and select the local site folder. Site names typically relate to a speciic project or client and will appear in the Files panel. For example, many websites provide individual folders for images, PDFs, video, and so on. Dreamweaver assists in this endeavor by including an option for a Default Images folder.

Later, as you insert images from other places on your computer, Dreamweaver will use this setting to automatically move the images into the site structure. Setting up a site is a crucial irst step in beginning any project in Dreamweaver. Knowing where the site root folder is located helps Dreamweaver determine link pathways and enables many site-wide options, such as Find and Replace.

Click Cancel. You will use the Welcome screen several times in this book. You can re-enable the Welcome screen in the General category of the Dreamweaver Preferences panel. Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with the design and components on the page. Can you determine what makes this layout diferent from existing HTML 4-based designs?

You will learn the diferences as you work through this lesson. You will align this element to the left later in this lesson. Observe the names and order of the tag selectors at the bottom of the document window. Elements appearing to the left are parents, or containers, of all elements to the right. As you click around the page sections, you will be able to determine the HTML structure without having to delve into the Code view window at all.

In many ways, the tag selector interface makes the job of identifying the HTML skeleton much easier, especially in complex page designs. These are some of the new semantic elements being introduced in HTML5.

By using elements that are named for speciic tasks or types of content, you can streamline code construction while achieving other beneits as well. For example, as search engines, such as Google and Yahoo, are optimized for HTML5, they will be able to locate and identify speciic types of content on each page more quickly, making your site more useful and easier to browse.

Using these new elements means that you can apply complex CSS styling while reducing the complexity of the code overall.

You can still use class and id attributes, but the new semantic elements reduce the need for this technique. Style display is typically on by default showing a check mark in the menu. Without the CSS styling, the navigation menu reverted back to a simple bulleted, or unordered, list with hyperlinks. Not too long ago this menu would have been built with images and complex rollover animation. If the images failed to load, the menu usually became a jumbled, unusable mess. But navigation built on text-based lists, on the other hand, will always be usable, even without styling.

Get into the habit of saving your iles on a regular basis. It will prevent the loss of data and important changes to your iles.

In the Save As dialog box, navigate to the site root folder, if necessary. Name the ile mylayout. All HTML pages created for the inal site will be saved in the site root folder. If you start at the top of the page and work down, the irst step would be to insert the graphical banner that appears in the inal design.

You could insert the banner directly into the header, but adding it as a background image has the advantage of leaving that element open for other content.

It will also allow the design to be more adaptable to other applications, like cell phones and mobile devices. Press Delete. When you delete the image placeholder, the empty header will collapse to a fraction of its former size because it has no CSS height speciication. But HTML5 is not the current web standard and some pages or components may not display properly on certain older browsers and devices. With all the caveats out of the way, the ugly truth is that even when you use standard HTML 4 code and components, older browsers and certain devices will still fail to render them properly.

Some web design- ers believe that the longer we persist in using the older code, the longer the older software and devices will hang around making our lives diicult and delaying the inevitable adoption of HTML5. These design- ers say we should abandon the older standards and force users to upgrade as soon as possible. Background images repeat both vertically and horizontally by default. Click Apply. Note that the image is slightly narrower than the container.

Before clicking OK, we need to add some inishing touches to the element. Did you notice that the butterly actually overlaps both the header and the hori- zontal navigation bar?

This technique has declined dramatically in recent years as the need to support cell phones and other mobile devices has increased. For certain applications, AP divs are still handy. An AP div will appear at the top left of the header.

Note the ID apDiv1 assigned to the new div in the tag selector. A corresponding rule has been added to the CSS Styles panel. Another property to be aware of is the z-index. By default, all elements have a z-index of zero 0. On the other hand, the AP div has a z-index of 1, which means it will appear above all the other elements on the page. All the values displayed in the Property inspector are actually stored in the apDiv1 rule that was generated automatically by Dreamweaver.

Select butterly-ovr. Observe the dimensions of the image: pixels by pixels. The PNG ile type supports alpha transparency, making this 3D efect pos- sible. Unfortunately, older browsers may not support alpha transparency and other PNG features. If you use PNG iles with such efects, always test them in your target browsers to make sure the desired efects are supported.

Change the height to px. Type 30 px in the Left margin ield. An AP div acts like a free agent. Press the Right Arrow key. Type FFC in the Color ield. Select Bold from the Font-weight ield. Enter 20 px in the Right padding ield. Enter 5 px Bottom ield, remember in the Bottom padding ield. Enter the following values only in the corresponding Bottom border ields: solid, 2 px, Dreamweaver does ofer HTML 4 layouts that match the design criteria much more closely, but it was hard to resist working with an HTML5 layout and all the new semantic elements.

Besides, adjusting the layout is a lot easier than you may think. For example, the overall width has to be modiied to match the banner image. You can use the rulers to measure the width and height of HTML elements or images. To give you more lexibility, you can set this zero point anywhere in the Design window. Drag the crosshairs to the upper-left corner of the header element in the current layout. Note the width of the layout.

Using the ruler, you can see that the layout is between and pixels wide. Observe the tag selector display to locate any elements that may control the width of the entire page; it would have to be an element that contains all the other elements. By now you should be getting good at CSS forensics using the tag selector interface and the Code Navigator.

In our example, the main content area shifted down below the sidebar. Note its width: pixels. In the Properties section of the panel, change the width to px. For this application, a thin border makes the most sense.

In the Border category, if necessary select the Same For All check boxes and enter the following values for all border ields: solid, 2px, and A dark green border appears around the page edge.

Type Green News. Change Link two to read Green Products. Change Link three to read Green Events. Change Link four to read Green Travel.

Type Green Tips. Observe the menu items and compare the irst four with the last. Can you see the diference? For Green Tips to look like the other menu items, you have to add a hyperlink, or at least a similar placeholder.

All the menu items are identically formatted now. In some cases, the rules listed may only afect the element in a roundabout way, as in the body rule, which afects all HTML elements on the page. Remember, more than one rule can, and probably will, format each page element. Be careful. Sound right? In the Properties section of the panel, change the existing background color to But the black text is diicult to read against the green background color. As you see in the horizontal menu, a lighter color would be more appropriate.

You can use the Properties section of the CSS Styles panel to add, as well as edit, element properties. A new property ield appears. Type FFC in the Value ield. According to the Code Navigator, the nav ul a, nav format various default hyperlink behaviors. Inserting an image placeholder he sidebar will feature photos, captions, and short blurbs on environmental top- ics. If it were, it would inherit any margins, padding, and other formatting applied to the paragraph, which could cause it to disrupt the layout.

Type in the Height ield. Type Insert caption here. Type Insert main heading here to replace the text. Type Insert subheading here to replace the text. Type Insert content here to replace it. Type Copyright Meridien GreenStart. Checking browser compatibility he CSS layouts included with Dreamweaver have been thoroughly tested to work lawlessly in all modern browsers.

However, during the lesson you made major modiications to the original layout. Before you use this page as your project template, you should check its compatibility.

When the Report box opens, there should be no issues listed. You created a workable basic page layout for your project tem- plate and learned how to insert additional components, image placeholders, text, and headings; adjust CSS formatting; and check for browser compatibility.

In the upcoming lessons, you will work further on this ile to complete the site template, tweak the CSS formatting and set up the template structure. How did they get here? It allows you to investigate what CSS rules are formatting a selected element and how they are applied. Stored in a cascading style sheet CSS , the formatting can be quickly changed and substituted for speciic applications and devices.

Note the layout, various colors, and other formats applied to the text and page elements—all created by cascading style sheets CSS. Using the comment structure allows such applications to ignore the CSS. When you create new rules or edit existing ones, Dreamweaver makes all the changes in the code for you, saving you time and reducing the possibility of code-entry errors.

P Note: The names and order of styles in your panel may vary from those pictured. But as you can see in the CSS Styles panel above, the rule reference appears near the bottom of all the rules. In this instance, moving this rule within the style sheet will not afect how it formats the element but it will make it easier to ind if you need to edit it later. P Note: Before 6 Select the apDiv1 rule and drag it directly underneath the. It has also rewritten the code in the embedded style sheet, moving the rule to its new position.

Arranging related rules together can save time later when you need to format speciic elements or components.

But be on the lookout for unintended consequences. Observe the properties and values that appear in the Property section of the panel. Most of these settings came with the layout, although you changed the background color in the last lesson. Note that the margins and padding are set to zero. As in the body rule, this rule sets all margin and padding values to zero.

Do you know why? An experienced web designer could select each rule in turn and probably igure out the reasons for each of the formats and settings. If you are in Design view, Dreamweaver will display the document in Split view and then focus on the section of code that contains the ul, ol, dl rule.

In Code view, it will jump to the appropriate lines that contain the rule. Like HTML comments, this text usually provides behind-the-scenes information that will not be displayed within the browser or afect any elements. Comments are a good way to leave handy reminders within the body of the webpage or to leave notes to yourself or others explaining why you wrote the code in a particular fashion.

It will help you ind speciic rules quickly and help remind you what you have already styled within your page. P Note: When 11 Using the CSS Styles panel, reorder the rules in the list, as necessary, so they moving rules using the match the order shown in the igure below. CSS Styles panel, the position of comments that are not embedded may not be preserved. Working with type One of the irst basic choices any designer must make for a website is selecting the default typeface or typefaces.

Some designers may use multiple typefaces for diferent purposes throughout the site. Others select a single base typeface that may match their normal corporate themes or culture.

CSS gives you tremendous control over page appearance. Some call this technique degrading gracefully. Dreamweaver CS6 ofers more than a dozen predeined font groups. You have successfully changed the basic font of the entire webpage by editing one rule.

All the text on the page now displays in Trebuchet MS. Headings, paragraphs, and list elements are all sized relative to this setting. Font size can convey the relative importance of the content on the page.

Headings are typically larger than the text they introduce for that reason. Observe the tag selectors at the bottom of the document window. Identify the element that contains this caption. To reduce the text size, you could create a new compound rule to format any of those elements. Such a rule would narrowly target the styling to content contained therein and ignore the vertical menu altogether.

Many designers resort to images to add graphical lair when code-based techniques can be problematic. But large images can consume too much Internet bandwidth and make pages slow to load and respond.

In some cases, a strategically designed small image can be used to create interesting 3D shapes and efects. In this exercise, you will learn how to create a three-dimensional efect with the help of a tiny image graphic and the CSS background property. Click the Browse button next to the Background-image ield. Observe the image dimensions and preview. Notice the lighter shade of green at the top of the graphic. Since the page is pixels wide, you know that this graphic could never ill the horizontal menu unless it were copied and pasted hundreds of times.

Some graphics, with shading, like background. CSS allows you to control the repeat to ill the entire element as necessary. Note that function and limit it to either the vertical or horizontal axis. Choose repeat-x from the Background-repeat ield menu. Creating descendant selectors he predeined style sheet declares a rule for multiple elements that will afect all h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, and p tags no matter where they appear on the page.

But if you want to target a style at a speciic tag within a speciic element, it requires a descendant selector. Dreamweaver makes it easy to create such rules. Note the names and order of the tag selectors at the bottom of the document window.

As described earlier in this chapter, when creating new rules take care about where they appear in the style sheet. Rules at the top of the sheet can pass formatting to rules appearing later using inheritance or cancel settings because of higher speciicity.

Inserting a rule in the wrong place could cause the browsers to ignore it altogether. P Note: When the cursor is inserted into Because you selected the. If the Compound compound selector selector type is not displayed, choose it from the Selector Type menu.

Typically, when the cursor is inserted not displayed when the into page content, the dialog box defaults to the Compound selector type and dialog box irst appears. Whenever possible, rules should be simpliied to reduce the total amount of code that needs to be downloaded.

Enter 5px in the Bottom margin ield. Note that the new rule was inserted directly after the. Dreamweaver makes it easy to apply classes. Make sure the cursor is lashing in the element and that no text is selected. P Note: You may need to refresh the page display to see the updated tag selector. When the cursor is inserted in an existing element, Dreamweaver assumes you want to apply the class to the entire element.

Choose green from the Class menu in the Property inspector. Now remove the class. Insert the cursor anywhere in the formatted text. When the cursor is inserted in Design or Code view. Creating custom IDs he CSS id attribute is given the highest speciic weight in CSS styling because it is used to identify unique content on a webpage and therefore should trump all other styling.

Right-click the selector name and choose Edit Selector from the context menu. Note the ID displayed in the Property inspector. Note that the menu has two apparent options: apDiv1 and logo. You can demonstrate this functionality with a simple test. You see this diference as soon as you insert an AP div into a document: Dreamweaver creates a rule for it automatically and assigns it attributes for width, height, position, and z-index, and it then displays these speciications in the Property inspector.

In fact, the special treatment persists even after the rule is created. If you change the id attribute of the AP div in the Property inspector, Dreamweaver will update the name of the rule in the CSS Styles panel at the same time. However, the reverse is not true. If you change the rule name using the style sheet as you did in this lesson , Dreamweaver does not change the ID on the element itself. The program leaves this chore up to you.

What happened to apDiv1? Additionally, as each ID stored in the style sheet is used in your layout, Dreamweaver interactively removes it from the menu to prevent you from accidentally using it a second time.

Many designers create these attributes irst and then deine them later, or use them to diferentiate speciic page structures, or to create hyperlink destinations. Some class and id attributes may never appear in the style sheets or pop-up menus. Examine the available class attributes.

Note that all class attributes are available. You should now know some of the diferences between classes and IDs, as well as how to create, edit, and assign them to elements on your page. Creating an interactive menu By combining descendant selectors, classes, and IDs, you can produce amazing behaviors from seemingly static elements. Videos, Flash animation, and JavaScript behaviors will all perform as they would on the Internet.

Observe the behavior and appearance of the menu items. P Note: Rollover refers As the mouse moves over each button, the cursor icon changes to the hand back to the time when pointer, indicating that the menu items are formatted as hyperlinks. Observe the behavior and appearance of the menu items, if any. Do not select the spaces on either making changes to your side of the word or the vertical bars, or pipes, that separate the words.

If Adding a hash mark in the Link ield creates a hyperlink placeholder and desired, you can change will allow you to create and test the necessary formatting for the horizontal both the content and navigation menu without having to create an actual link. Note that the text now styling using the Code displays the formatting of a typical text hyperlink.

Be sure to select both words in each item before applying the placeholder. Watch for any undesirable side efects. The a:link pseudoclass in many cases is interchangeable with the a selector in CSS rules. However, as you already experienced earlier, a:link is more speciic and may override speciications assigned to the less speciic a selector if both are used in the style sheet.

This speciication is reset whenever the browser cache or history is deleted. When used, the pseudoclasses must be declared in the order as listed above to be efective. Remember, whether declared in the style sheet or not, each state has a set of default formats and behaviors. When a link has been used, it usually changes color, indicating that you visited that destination earlier. However, in the vertical and horizontal menus, we do not want the links to change their appearance after you click them.

To prevent or reset this behavior, you can create a compound rule that will format both states of the link at once. Type :link to add it at the end of the selector name. Type a comma , and press the spacebar to insert a space.

By combining these two selectors into one rule, you are formatting the default properties of both hyperlink states at once. Position the cursor over the hyperlink placeholders in the horizontal menu. But these hyperlinks have none of the lair of the vertical menu, with its changing background color. As explained, that interactive behavior is controlled by the pseudoclass a:hover. Save the ile. Select the nav p a:link, state inherits much of its formatting from a nav p a:visited rule in the CSS Styles panel.

In most he New CSS Rule dialog box appears with the Compound selector type cases, you only need to declare values for displayed and the text. Edit the Selector Name to say nav p a:hover, nav p a:active, and click OK. You can create a more interesting efect by add space outside the adding a little padding to the element. Adobe Dreamweaver CS5. Adobe Photoshop CS6 Tutorial. Adobe Illustrator CS6 Tutorial. Quick Guide to Photoshop CS6. Description : This lesson will introduce fundamental tools and techniques for modifying images in Photoshop CS6.

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